What behaviors does ABA seek to increase or decrease?
Applied behavior analysis (ABA) uses the principles of behavior for increasing and decreasing specific behaviors of social significance. Behaviors to increase or decrease are selected in collaboration with parents. Additionally, it is wise to involve other relevant stakeholders, like extended family or your child’s teacher.
When selecting ABA goals, it’s important to consider:
For challenging behavior, it’s crucial to consider how much is the behavior impacting the child’s functioning, learning, social opportunities, or ability to access the community. If parents cannot take a child to the store because of tantrums, it can impact a family significantly. (e.g., decreased access to social skills, difficulty completing common routines, or cost of childcare so the parent can go to the store). Similarly, if a child cannot communicate his or her wants or needs, this may cause problems for the family system as a whole.
It is important to consider the following points for increasing skills:
* What should the child be doing?
* How far outside of typical development is this behavior?
* Typically, what should a child this age be doing or expected to do?
* In what manner are these skills pivotal to future areas of development?
Small steps may lead to a larger goal
All goals should be prioritized based on some of the questions listed above. It is also essential to consider prerequisite skills and look at the larger picture. It may be that before you get to the big point of concern that there are other smaller goals to meet along the way. If your child cannot wait at home for five minutes, then waiting at a store for a toy may be more difficult. First, work on the smaller skills to build to the larger ones. With patience and practice, your child will be on their way to achieving their goals.
ABA therapy can be implemented in different environments, like home, our clinics, or in the classroom.
At NSPT, your child will receive 1:1 therapy along with the ongoing analysis of his/her progress to ensure he/she is continuing to progress and succeed.
https://nspt4kids.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/pexels-photo-296308.jpg7501088Erin Shoshanahttps://nspt4kids.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngErin Shoshana2019-03-13 02:26:282019-05-15 09:43:37Increasing & Decreasing Behavior With ABA
As we previously learned in our blog What Are Executive Functioning Skills?, executive functioning skills are what help all of us achieve goal-directed behaviors. They are the building blocks of successful planning, appropriate communication and relationships, and task-oriented behaviors.
To help your child increase his/her executive functioning skills, we must look at the whole child. If there are other issues, those must be addressed with qualified professionals, supportive family members and school staff.
To help your child become a prepared, organized individual, increase his self-esteem and aid him in social situations, executive functioning skills are crucial.
It is never too late to offer and obtain help; and for your child to learn the skills needed to increase his abilities. As with any skill, it will take effort, practice, praise and patience.
Try these tips to help your child improve their executive functioning skills:
Pre-school and Elementary School
Helping your child increase executive functioning skills may involve adding more structure to his environment.
Aid your child with putting out clothes the night before school or having her backpack ready at the door. Show your child how to put away her toys and allow her to do it on her own.
Do homework shortly after she gets home and in the same spot each time, with minimal distractions. If she is having trouble with staying on task at school, then the school may offer (and you can advocate for) accommodations through an Individual Education Plan.
Demonstrate through your actions and encouragement that being prepared is a positive message that creates less stress for her and the entire family. Model being on time and planning ahead. Use a calendar to plan playdates and appointments, and encourage your child’s participation in basic planning skills (like setting the table for dinner, studying for a spelling quiz, or writing a card for an upcoming party).
Help her notice when it is her turn to talk, and how others feel if she interrupts. Ask her to think about others’ feelings and behaviors and how her actions or words may impact them.
Middle School and High School
As your child gets older, help him to develop skills aimed at organization and time management. Continue encouraging your child to prepare for school the night before. Sit in the same place to do homework every day. Try to begin assigned work when still fresh and not wait until late at night.
Use an assignment notebook. If needed, have the teacher sign it, check it and give it back to provide accountability. Offer positive reinforcement for fulfilling goals. Limit electronics and distractions. Use a timer to discourage procrastination. Give praise.
Enlist help from the school. If your child’s grades are extremely inconsistent, his work is disorganized and he continually forgets to bring/do homework assignments, it is likely time to speak to your child’s teacher, counselor or social worker.
Your child may need further accommodations at school. These may be resource time to finish homework, meetings with the counselor for encouragement, checking his backpack and locker, preferential seating in class, checking of his assignment notebook to ensure he is writing down his assignments and knows what is expected.
College Years and Beyond
The goal is for our children to be prepared to not just handle the world of work and daily living on their own, but to be happy and successful doing so. Using executive functioning skills such as time management, planning, and organization enables kids to be successful when they are on their own. Being prepared for a work presentation takes planning, time constraint considerations, and organization.
Increase confidence in your child and help him build positive relationships as he learns to navigate social interactions, anticipate possible outcomes and problem-solve to come up with potential consequences of his behavior.
Executive functioning skills will allow your child to cope with many of the stresses presented in his daily life.
Let’s help our children now to increase executive functioning skills that will allow them to be productive and successful in their future. Help them continue to blossom!
Many of us have heard executive functioning used in terms of our children at school and at home. But what does it mean?
Executive Function – a Definition
Executive functions are necessary for goal-directed behavior. When we use the phrase “executive functioning skills,” we are describing a set of cognitive skills that control and regulate other behaviors and abilities. Our thought processes influence attention, memory and motor skills. (minddisorders.com).
Executive functioning skills help us to learn and retrieve information, plan, organize, manage our time, and see potential outcomes and act accordingly. When these processes work without difficulty, our brains do these tasks automatically, often without our awareness.
High Executive Function
In children and adults, those with high executive function skills are able to:
Initiate and stop actions
Make changes in behavior
Plan for the future
Manage time wisely
Anticipate possible consequences
Use problem-solving strategies
Use senses to gather information
For instance, the ability to initiate and stop actions may include working on a project for school or studying for an allotted time. Monitoring ones changes in behavior includes being able to act appropriately in a given situation and alter that behavior as needed. Planning for the future and managing time may include not procrastinating due to understanding the consequences of doing so.
Low Executive Function
When one is deficient in executive function skills, it may be difficult to plan and carry out tasks. The person may seem unable to sustain attention and feel overwhelmed by situations others find easier to navigate.
So, a child with executive functioning deficits may be able to pay attention to a lesson, until something new is introduced that requires a shift in their attention or that divides their focus. Children lacking in executive functioning skills also may have issues with verbal fluency.
Additionally, a child (or adult) with low executive function may have social problems. Executive functioning skills allow us to anticipate how others might feel if we do or say something. Those with low executive function may have difficulty interacting with others. Because they sometimes do not think things through before saying them, people with executive functioning deficits may blurt out inappropriate or hurtful comments, leading others to avoid them.
Working with your child, a therapist, and creating structure at home and accommodation plans at school are all ways to provide help for your child.
Increasing executive functioning skills will enable her to become a more organized, less stressed and less frustrated individual as she grows into a world of ever-increasing pressures.
Executive Functions are a set of higher order mental processes that allow an individual, or in this case, children; the ability to control their thoughts, actions, and attention in their ever-changing environment. Often, children can present with executive functioning issues as a result of many different factors such as Autism and ADHD.
Below are some executive functioning skills and how they present in both individuals with normal and poor executive functioning, and some tools/strategies for parents:
Your child has trouble being organized or often loses, or misplaces items.
Create a “home space” for your child’s items. This can include simply labeling areas of the home where items should be stored, so your child knows where to place items and lowers the risk of loss. Make checklists or use planners to help your child create a schedule.
Your child easily forgets what they just heard, or what they were asked to do.
Make connections in every lesson. Have you ever heard of ROY G. BIV? – this is how most people remember the colors of the rainbow. When teaching new content such as tying a shoe use cute, age appropriate analogies such as the bunny rabbit in the hole. Also, helping your child visualize information by writing it down, drawing pictures, and even becoming the teacher are great tools as well.
Your child may not seem aware of themselves such as when they are doing well.
Behavior charts are a great tool to help your child self-manage their own behavior. Choose an important behavior for your child to manage and how often you would like for your child to “check in” on this behavior.
Task Initiation/Planning and Prioritizing
Your child takes forever to get started on a particular task or has trouble planning activities.
Break whole tasks down into smaller achievable steps. If the desired result is for your child to complete an entire homework sheet, maybe setting a goal to do the first 2 problems together can be a happy medium. Also allowing your child to take breaks or receive rewards between tasks are a good strategy as well.
Your child often has trouble with new ideas, transitions and spontaneity.
Visual schedules and first/then language are your biggest friend. For a child who has trouble being flexible, try to alert your child to changes in routine as far in advance as you can. To help combat rigidity such as not wanting to try a new food, try to approach slow and steady first. This can include tasting a small amount of a new food instead of a large portion.
Your child often has trouble controlling their emotions and impulses when they are sad, happy, or angry.
Speak and repeat. When providing directions to a child, if applicable, state the directions remembering to adhere to your child’s learner and listener styles, and then have your child repeat back to you. Use social stories and modeling: For example, if your child often gets upset when they lose a game, a social story can help teach tools on how to act in this situation.
https://nspt4kids.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Blog-Executive-Functioning-FeaturedImage.png186183Faith Champhttps://nspt4kids.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngFaith Champ2016-12-02 05:30:092016-12-01 11:16:17Executive Functioning Skills: How Can I Help My Child?
Children aren’t born with executive functioning or self-regulation skills, rather their brain has the capacity to develop them. As a result, these skills that support a child’s capacity to learn, grow and develop can be inhibited by a number of factors including stress, environment, relationships, or delays. They can blossom and develop more fully with support from adults and the environment around them. Some children require more focused support to better develop executive functioning and self-regulation skills. Support can be through Early Education Opportunities and/or more formal intervention and support like Occupational Therapy, Behavior Therapy or Mental Health Services.
How to Identify on Track Development for Executive Functioning and Self-Regulation Skills
Positive Engagement in School
Your child has a positive experience at school, cooperates with expectations and meets expectations most days.
Your child completes their work in a timely manner and typically understands the material.
Your child’s school work is typically organized and can be located easily.
For younger children, they attend school most days without difficulty. They can share what happens at school each day and can tolerate when things change.
Your child can get along with others, can initiate interaction and negotiate play appropriately.
Your child typically understands and follows routine expectations and rules.
Your child typically responds to redirection without difficulty.
Your child can communicate his needs, wants, or wishes appropriately and effectively.
Your child can take responsibility for their actions and can understand the consequences.
For younger children, they engage in turn-taking, sharing, and show emerging empathy for others if they get hurt or sick.
Healthy and Safe Choices
Your child makes safe choices when interacting with others across settings (home, school, and in the community).
Your child can recognize and understand the importance of rules and safety.
Your child can make healthy choices for themselves (balanced eating, exercising or participating in activities that make them feel good).
Your child can access and utilize help when needed.
For younger children, they can talk about the rules at home and school. They can cooperate with important routines like sleeping, eating and toileting.
Communication and Coping Skills
Your child can express their needs, wants, and feelings verbally and effectively.
Your child can typically communicate or express their frustration or anger in a safe, appropriate manner.
Your child can accept support or help from others.
Your child can advocate for themselves appropriately.
For younger children they can ask for help, ask for their needs with words or gestures, and can calm down with adult support.
How to Promote Executive Functioning and Self-Regulation skills
Provide a visual guide for routine and rules at home.
Make expectations clear and concise; talk about what happened if expectations are not being met.
Provide 1 or 2 step directions when giving instructions.
Spend time together for multi-step activities like art, a puzzle or baking activity; talk about the steps needed.
Encourage and praise hard work and persistence especially when trying something new or challenging.
Use first/then statements i.e. “First we put the toys away, then we can have snack.”
Take time for calm and quiet activities together i.e. reading, taking a walk and coloring.
Model how to calm down or take deep breaths when upset.
Model healthy living and safe choices.
Develop Family Rituals that provide time to reflect and share about thoughts, feelings, and experiences (i.e. Highs and lows from the day over dinner, 3 best parts of the day on the drive home, marking off days on a calendar to look forward to a family outing).
Talk and share about feelings. Be willing to share your own.
https://nspt4kids.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Blog-Executive-Functioning-FeaturedImage.png186183Meghan Greeleyhttps://nspt4kids.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngMeghan Greeley2016-11-30 05:30:162016-11-29 11:27:12Executive Functioning and Self-Regulation Skills for My Child
Pediatric occupational therapy focuses on increasing your child’s level of participation in all the activities of their daily life. From teaching your child to sit still, play basketball or fasten buttons, occupational therapists can work with your child to make sure their needs are met in the areas of self-care, play, school/academic-related skills, attention and regulation.
Develop Fine Motor and Visual Motor Ability
Fine motor skills involve the controlled movements of fingers and hands to carry out tasks. For a child with difficulty in this area, one of our occupational therapists might work on the following tasks with your child:
Holding a pencil properly
Putting on socks
Transferring coins from palms to fingertips
Visual motor activities often go hand-in-hand with motor skills as they combine fine motor control with visual perception. Occupational therapy sessions targeting visual motor skills can include activities such as drawing and cutting out shapes, writing letters, completing puzzles, completing mazes and dot-to-dots.
Explore All the Senses
Occupational therapy sessions targeting sensory integration are designed to help your child take in, process and respond to sensory information from the environment more efficiently. Here are two examples of how sensory integration activities could benefit your child:
If your child is hypersensitive to tactile input, a session may involve encouraging your child to tolerate playing with sand, dirt or finger paint.
If your child seeks out constant movement, a session may involve providing deep pressure input through yoga poses, for example.
Improve Executive Functioning Skills
Executive functioning skills help guide your child’s brain to complete tasks. These includes: task initiation, planning, organization, problem solving, working memory and inhibition. In teaching these skills, your child’s occupational therapist will mimic real-life tasks to improve the ease at which these tasks are completed.
“For example, to work on planning and organization, your child’s session may involve planning for and carrying out a long-term project with step-by-step-completion,” “For a child who has trouble with task initiation, a homework routine or contract may be created with the use of auditory and/or visual timers or movement breaks.”
Build Strength and Coordination
Tying shoes. Sitting upright at circle time. Playing basketball at recess.
These might seem like simple activities, but upper body strength and coordination play a large role in your child’s ability to carry out these daily tasks. Here’s how our occupational therapists help address these issues:
Upper body strength: This may be addressed with activities such as manipulating “theraputty” or by playing with a scooter board.
Core strength: This is often addressed through tasks that challenge the core muscles. During these activities, children are encouraged to complete yoga poses or play “crab soccer” in a crab-walk position.
Coordination activities: These activities target the planning and putting together of movements, particularly those that use both arms and legs at the same time (throwing and catching a ball, jumping jacks or climbing on a playground ladder).
NSPT offers services in Bucktown, Evanston, Highland Park, Lincolnwood, Glenview, Lake Bluff, Des Plaines, Hinsdale and Milwaukee. If you have questions or concerns about your child, we would love to help. Give us a call at (877) 486-4140 and speak to one of our Family Child Advocates.
https://nspt4kids.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Blog-Occupational-Therapy-FeaturedImage.png186183Amanda Burkerthttps://nspt4kids.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngAmanda Burkert2016-10-06 12:13:312018-03-14 10:59:20What Will My Child Experience in an Occupational Therapy Session?
Executive functioning challenges can often be overlooked as children are otherwise labeled as lazy or unmotivated. If a child has difficulties with executive functioning he or she may present with behaviors of avoidance, emotional outbursts, or not even acknowledging the task at hand. This is probably because they are feeling overwhelmed and do not have the foundational skills needed to problem solve through organizational tasks. Helping your child to develop these skills can support their independent success and can increase future task initiation toward personal organization.
What Can Parents Do to Help an Unorganized Child?
Support them, assist in their growth of skills, and praise any small triumph! The general idea is to have the child learn the problem solving skills required to think through tasks that are seemingly overwhelming. First you always, ALWAYS start small, then tackle bigger projects as they can manage. Then as they make achievements, don’t forget to recognize their hard work! Praise moments of follow through and self-initiated tasks with recognition and/or rewards.
5 Tips to Help Organize Their Life:
Establish a place to write it all down- daily planners and a family calendar are great tools to keep track of their time.
Introduce Responsibility- Create a Chore chart and a To-Do list as a family. Don’t forget to keep their age and time needed for completion of these activities in mind when choosing the appropriate task(s).
Acknowledge that the time is ticking- Visual timers are great for those children who tend to take more time than necessary on simple tasks. Timers can also help to keep a child focused and engaged in the activity.
Create a place for all items to have a specific home- Designate places for items and stick to it. Growing up with the golden rule ‘Always place an item back in its original place, in its same or better condition’ may help keep the house cleaner. Utilizing organizational tools, such as visual prompts (numbering, color coding) and charts can help too.
Check in- They will need a little help! Have the children show you their completed work, planner, clean space, etc. Make them feel accomplished and help them problem solve solutions to existing problems.
5 Activity Ideas to Facilitate their Organizational Skills:
Tackle a junk drawer, pantry shelf, or game closet- Have them help a parent problem solve through the organization of a messy place. Starting in a small place is key so there are no overwhelming moments too big for the child. Have the child think through the task with the parent facilitating only when needed.
Cook with your child- A successful meal requires significant planning, working memory, organization, and time management. See how much they can lead the cooking activity and help when needed. This can be fun for the child while having a great learning experience!
Have them set up the family’s calendar for the next week or month- Give them the tools to place all of the activities on the calendar and check their work when done. Have the child help recognize and problem solve through time conflicts.
Create an annual family night with board games- Board games are great for independent thinking and problem solving. Their success within a board game can greatly depend on their ability to organize themselves and materials within the game.
Assist with putting together new things- Following written or verbal directions can be very difficult. With supervision and help, have the child responsible for constructing and/or setting up new purchased items.
https://nspt4kids.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Blog-Unorganized-Child-FeaturedImage.png186183Shelly Searshttps://nspt4kids.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngShelly Sears2016-07-05 09:43:422016-07-05 10:32:02How to Motivate the Unorganized Child
“Clean your room!” If only you had a nickel for every time that battle cry resonated through the halls of your home.
Organization of a room is a song and dance of its own accord. There is the clean out process, the sort and store aspects and the long-term maintenance of the belongings. The amount of organization options available can be just as confusing. Remember, organizing for your child is much different than organizing for yourself. Here are a few key aspects of organizing your child’s room to keep in mind.
Tips to Help Your Child Organize His Room:
See what your child sees: when organizing his room, make sure you are taking your child’s perspective. Get to his level to truly understand how your child is seeing his room. Identifying his vantage points will help you to place the important, and most necessary items, in direct line of sight.
Make it a team effort: allowing your child to have input in their room, the decorations, and the organization strategies, will make for an excellent learning opportunity. It allows for the child to understand the steps that are involved in creating a system; it will also translate into maintaining the system they help to create.
Keep it child friendly: Accordion-style closet doors can pinch fingers, hanging rods can be too tall, hangers can be too big…the list continues. Make sure that the space is child friendly; for younger children, remove closet doors completely. Install a second hanging rod within arm’s reach for the current season’s clothing. Use open containers on the floor of the closet for toys and knick-knacks.
Increase responsibility with age: between the ages of 2-4 the clean-up and organize process can be a game. Turn clean up into a song and dance or a race. At ages 5-8, integrate more self-initiated clean-up times into the daily routine. Ages 9-12 bring the need to organize school items and extracurricular sports materials. Increase the amount of organization your child is responsible for as their day-to-day responsibilities increase.
https://nspt4kids.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/organized-room-featured.png186183Monal Patelhttps://nspt4kids.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngMonal Patel2015-11-17 09:25:172015-11-17 09:25:17Help Your Child Organize His Room
Executive functioning skills are behaviors that guide and complete actions. They are the skills we use, independently, to help us to complete tasks and achieve goals.
Think of them as not the individual skills of a task, but the behaviors needed to complete the task.
Executive functioning skills are crucial for academic success. These skills are not directly taught in school, through are expected to be utilized in the classroom setting. The independent use of skills, including initiation, problem-solving, working memory, inhibition and organization, is difficult for both adults and children.
Executive functioning concerns are seen in a variety of conditions and diagnoses including ADHD, Learning Disabilities, Anxiety, Depression, Autism Spectrum Disorder, and a variety of medical conditions. However, there are no specifics of what is necessary for a diagnosis of Executive Functioning Disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th Edition (DSM-V).
Executive Functioning By Age:
During the preschool years, prefrontal brain systems undergo rapid changes such as making new neurological connections and speeding up how fast messages are transmitted in the brain. It is the time in which executive functioning skills, specifically inhibitory control, rule use, working memory, and motor persistence, play a critical role in the development of socialization and readiness for academic learning. The early years of schooling are learning how to be a student. There are many inherent structures and routines in place to help ensure the child completes work. As children get older the natural scaffolds of teacher interference and organization are removed, stressing the need for independence.
As children reach school age, executive functioning skills are central to successful acquisition and efficient use of academic skills, particularly in efforts to overcome learning problems of all kinds. At this age, children are expected to integrate multiple executive functioning skills as a means to complete longer tasks.
As these children age into adolescence, the demands of executive functioning skills increase tenfold. At this age, executive functioning difficulties are seen with spontaneous use of skills, strategic initiation of tasks, and mental flexibility. Meaning concerns are no longer with regard to impulse regulation but rather with initiating action on work/time management as well as developing organizational strategies to complete work.
Interventions for Executive Functioning:
A major component of intervention for executive functioning is that the techniques have to be in real-life contexts. Teaching skills during tasks that mimic academic and life demands results in better carryover of skill. This systematic approach to teaching problem solving with everyday activities is best. Familiar tasks should be used to learn skills initially. The use of novel tasks in the learning process will prove difficult due to perceived difficulty, stress or anxiety around possible failure.
Specifically, as the child learns to complete a multi-step task following a set sequence of steps (with multiple opportunities to practice the routine), the task becomes less novel. The child is then able to improve functional activities with less reliance on external cues.
Interventions must be rehearsed, coached, and practiced to support overlearning or automaticity in the environment in which they will be needed. This will explicitly support the “how and when” skills associated with the child’s unique areas of problem behavior.
There is also an emphasis on developing a child’s metacognitive skills. Metacognition is essentially thinking about thinking. You are teaching the child to think and plan ahead before diving into an activity or task.
A fourth principle involves structuring the child’s environment by establishing simplified, consistent routines for daily tasks. Teaching and carryover is most effective with accommodations and interventions across each environment. These accommodations could include verbal cues, nonverbal gestures, schedules, check-lists, alarm clocks, timers (auditory or visual), and/or environmental modifications.
Additionally, a motivational reward/consequence system, and/or self-talk methods can also be used to ensure success.
https://nspt4kids.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/brain-icons.png186183Monal Patelhttps://nspt4kids.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/nspt_2-color-logo_noclaims.pngMonal Patel2015-09-17 10:28:312019-04-10 12:46:35Executive Functioning Skills for School Success
We are all guilty of that last minute Hail Mary to finalize a report or satisfy a deadline. Even during the times when you are confident you will be ahead of the curve, life happens and best laid plans fail. Teach, and practice, these helpful strategies to avoid procrastination.
Tips to Help Your Child Stop Procrastinating:
Sit down with your child and organize all the work that needs to be completed. Arrange these tasks in an A, B, C manner where A’s are of the utmost priority that need to be achieved right away and B’s and C’s are not as pressing. Once the A’s are completed, then the child can move on to the lesser important items. You can do this on a daily or weekly basis.
Break down tasks on to visual schedule. Add daily tasks to a visual calendar so that the child can see what he is responsible for doing. If an assignment lasts longer than one day to complete, like writing a paper or studying for test, break down this task across several days in smaller time increments. Upon completion of this task, the child can cross off the assignment to garner a sense of satisfaction and have an active status for remaining work.
Check assignment notebook/online database for assignments. Model for your child this essential step prior to engagement in homework. When your child comes home from school, make a habit of sitting down during snack time to discuss the requirements for the day. Encourage collaboration for prioritizing tasks through review of syllabus, assignment notebook, and any information posted on line to get the most comprehensive picture of tasks. This may not just include homework but money for hot lunch, filling out consents for field trips, and keeping track of other important information. These items can all be housed on the big visual schedule.
Open communication. Encourage open communication in a non-punitive forum. Let your child know that he can still receive tablet time, play dates, and movies throughout the week even if they have a lot of work to complete. Scheduling down time and fun can also help to debunk irrational, negative thoughts about having to complete work if the child can see that fun and leisure is being factored in too.