books

Books by the Ages: Reading Fun for All!

 

 

 

Whether reading to a child, having a child help turn the pages of a book, or a having a child read aloud, books are a great resource for learning, fun, and special moments!

For example, I recently heard my favorite book from childhood, Alexander and The Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day, is being made into a movie. I was so excited that I put it in my calendar! The fact that I read this over 30 years ago and still feel this excitement shows the impact books can have on a child at any age.

Below are some of my favorite books broken down by ages. Can’t afford to buy them all?…take your child to the local library and have them get their own library card.  Most are free if you a resident where the library is located!

Books for Children Birth to 3:

  • Goodnight Moon by Margaret Brown
  • The Very Hungry Caterpillar by Eric Carle
  • Pat the Bunny by Dorothy Kunhardt
  • Counting Kisses: A Kiss & Read Book by Karen Katz
  • Ten Little Ladybugs by Melanie Gerth and Laura Huliska-Beith
  • Board books by Caroline Jayne Church
  • Board books by Leslie Patricelli
  • Honk, Honk! Baa, Baa! by Petr Horacek

Tip-choose books with the following qualities:

  1. Books where you can use different expressions as you read
  2. Books where you can incorporate tactile experiences (let the infant touch and chew)
  3. Books where you can allow the child to use cognitive skills–bright colors, shapes, photos.

Books for Toddlers:

  • Where the Sidewalk Ends by Shel Silverstein (also under school age)
  • Go, Dog, Go! by P.D. Eastman
  • Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What Do You See? by Eric Carle
  • Chicka Chicka Boom Boom by Bill Martin Jr.
  • Pete the Cat books
  • The Rainbow Fish by Marcus Pfister
  • Curious George books
  • Click Clack Moo: Cows That Type by Doreen Cronin

 Tip-choose books with the following qualities:

  1. Books that reinforce concepts such as letters, numbers, colors, etc
  2. Books that are interactive where you can ask questions, have child help turn pages, or rhyme words

Books for School-Age Children:

  • Harold and the Purple Crayon by Crockett Johnson
  • A Snowy Day by Ezra Jack Keats
  • Amelia Bedelia by Peggy Parish
  • Ramona the Pest by Beverly Cleary
  • Alexander and the Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day by Judith Viorst
  • Where the Sidewalk Ends by Shel Silverstein
  • Dear Mrs. LaRue: Letters from Obedience School by Mark Teague
  • The Boxcar Children by Gertrude Chandler Warner
  • Stuart Little by E. B. White
  • Books by Judy Blume
  • My Weird School series by Dan Gutman

Tip-choose books with the following qualities:

  1. Books that have clear text that is easy to understand
  2. Books that have colorful illustrations that help with words or phrases that may be unfamiliar
  3. Books that encourage discussion
  4. Chapter books

Books for Teens:

  • Harry Potter series
  • The Outsiders by SE Hinton
  • The Book Thief by Markus Zusak
  • Flowers For Algernon by Daniel Keyes
  • Uglies series by Scott Westerfeld
  • Books by John Green (The Fault in our Stars, Looking for Alaska, Paper Towns)
  • A Tree Grows in Brooklyn by Betty Smith

Tip-choose books with the following qualities:

  1. Books that spark an interest based on hobbies or type of literature (fiction, biography, sci-fi, etc)
  2. Books that introduce a new experience
  3. Books that are part of a series

Read here for more on books that promote language in babies and toddlers!





 

extra-curricular success for children with special needs

Ensure Extra-Curricular Success for Children with Special Needs

Often parents of children with special needs are worried and fearful about the ability of their child to succeed in extra-curricular activities such as sports, boy scouts, dance, art class, etc. Parents often fear the worst and are afraid of how the child will behave or act in such circumstances.  I would recommend that parents utilize several tips in order to help ensure success with each out-of-school activity, as these activities have many proven benefits for a child’s self-esteem.

Tips for Working with Coaches to Ensure Success for Children with Special Needs in Extra-Curricular Activities:

1. Be frank with the coach or director of the activity. Inform him or her about the child’s concerns. These are often individuals who volunteer to help children and more times than naught have the child’s best interest in mind.

2. Let the individual know what types of behaviors the child has exhibited in the past. What happened in school when parents were away, etc?

3. Create a list of accommodations that have proven to be beneficial for the child. Let the coach or instructor in on some of the modifications that have been helpful in the academic setting, as he may be able to apply the modification to the activity setting.

4. Be present, or within immediate reach, for the first few sessions.

5. Have the child go and see the building and room will the activity will occur. If possible, meet the instructor to form a relationship in advance.

Ultimately the main goal of after school activities is to increase socialization while teaching a skill, activity, or sport. The above tips should help provide some strategies to ensure the maximum success for children who have special needs in such situations.

the benefits of a visual schedule

The Benefits of a Visual Schedule for Home and School Success

Do you feel like a broken record when you ask your child to complete a simple task or standard routine? Whether you’re asking your child to fulfill her typical morning routine or planning ahead for the upcoming weekend, try using a visual schedule to outline your expectations.

The benefits of a visual schedule include the following:

Visual schedules make chores or tasks objective instead of subjective. When there is a neutral source promoting expectations for the child, it fosters enhanced independence in the child as well as takes the emotionality out of having to remind, repeat, and get frustrated with the child’s progress. Even though it would seem like second nature to complete standard morning time practices, the visual schedule outlines for the child what comes first, second, last, etc. and provides a checklist to move through. Some parents take pictures of their child completing these tasks (i.e. making their bed, brushing their teeth, packing their bag, eating breakfast) to make this a visually pleasing tool and increase child investment in the process.

Visual schedules make transitions easier. For younger children who thrive with structure and benefit from knowing what is on the agenda for the day, a simple visual schedule can aid in transitions and reduce anxiety about upcoming events. These schedules can be less formal and just require a simple sketch of what is to come. During lazy days or even days with little going on, visual schedules can help to structure unstructured time and provide a variety of outlets in a time-sensitive fashion. For example, on a relaxing Saturday create a schedule with your child that incorporates meal times and provides options for morning “art time” and afternoon “outdoors time”. These schedules create structure with pictures. Instead of writing out art time, draw with crayons, paints, or chalk. Meal time would be indicated with a picture of a sandwich and plate. Drawing these expectations out can facilitate independence for even young kids to stick to the routine and understand the structure through the use of symbols.

These visual schedule help bring structure and independence to all home and school routines.

For more help this school year, watch this Pediatric TV Episode on how to set up a homework station at home.







prepping your child for kindegarten

On the Way…Prepping Your Child for Kindergarten

 

 

 

School is just around the corner, and some kiddos will be starting their journey into formal education as they head off to Kindergarten. Here are some tips to prepare your child…and yourself for this important milestone.

Why is it important to prepare your child for Kindergarten?

It is important that your child is prepared for this transition so they can have positive interactions when learning and participating in the classroom as well as to build their self-esteem and motivation.

What are common “readiness” skills?

While every school may have their own checklist or assessments, there are some basics skills that most Kindergarten teachers will look for including the following:

Self Help Skills

  • Child is able to be independent (eating, using restroom, clean up)
  • Able to ask for help, when appropriate
  • Can follow one-step and two-step directions

Social/Emotional Skills

  • Shares with others
  • Takes turns
  • Good listener
  • Able to work independently or in small groups
  • Plays/cooperates with others
  • Able to separate from Caregiver

Gross (large) Motor Skills

  • Runs, jumps
  • Able to bounce, kick, and throw a ball
  • Able to participate in small games
  • Can stand on one foot

Fine (small) Motor Skills

Math, Language, and Literacy Skills

  • Able to count to 10
  • Recognizes 10 or more letters, especially those in own name
  • Speaks in sentences of 5+ words
  • Speech is understandable to adults
  • Identifies and names basic shapes
  • Listens attentively and can respond to stories/books
  • Recognizes rhyming words and can put words together that rhyme

How can you help your child be ready for Kindergarten?

Here are some tips to help your child be the best they can be when heading off to Kindergarten:

  • Talk about what will happen in school—what will be the new routine?
  • Arrange a visit to the school and travel the route from home to school (especially if they will be on a bus).
  • Encourage play—independently and with other children.
  • Read, Read, Read—ask questions about the book (what may happen, what they learned), and have them identify colors, shapes, letters
  • Have child practice coloring, writing, and using scissors—“practice makes perfect!”
  • Talk with your child—ask them open-ended questions and have them reciprocate.
  • Use daily activities to point out words, numbers and help child formulate sentences of 5+ words.
  • Encourage independence in your child by having them do simple chores (ex: make bed, help set table/clean up at mealtimes, help with pets in household).

***Most importantly caregivers…be careful not to transmit any anxieties or sadness you may have when your “baby” goes off to school. Children can easily pick up on the emotions of adults, so wait until the bus is out of sight, or the car door closes and THEN pull out the tissues!!





help your child with stuttering

Stuttering-How to Help Your Child at Home

 

 

 

When you first notice your child stuttering, it can be very worrisome. Will he grow out of it? Should I take him for a speech-language evaluation? Why is it happening? First, let’s look at what is typical versus atypical stuttering in young children.

Typical

  • During language development, young children occasionally repeat syllables or words one to two times. For example, “I, I want to play.”
  • Children may hesitate when speaking and use fillers such as “um”, “er”, “uh”.
  • Disfluencies come and go. Your child may stutter for a week and then it goes away completely. This is an indication that your child is learning to use language in different ways.

Atypical

  • Syllables, words, or sounds are repeated more than once or twice. For example, “I, I, I, I want to play” or “I w-w-w-want to play”.
  • Your child starts their utterances with fillers (“uh”, “um”, “er”) versus using them withing her sentence. For example, “Um, um, uh, I want to play.”
  • You may notice tension in your child’s facial muscles and/or neck.
  • Your child may experience a “block” – this is when your child attempts to say something, though there is no airflow or voice for a few seconds.
  • Disfluencies may continue to come and go; however they are more present than absent.

Whether you feel your child’s stuttering is typical or atypical, there are several strategies that you can use at home to promote fluent speech:

1. Model, reinforce, and praise healthy conversation skills during 2-3 structured times per day. Healthy conversation skills include:

  • Encouraging “thinking time” to increase time needed for language formulation
  • Speaking at normal to slow normal rate to model easy, relaxed speech.  Easy, relaxed speech: elongated vowels in words, smooth transitions between words, and lots of pauses between sentences.

2. Reduce the quantity of talking to ease the pace of communication and allow your child to take his time in formulating what he wants to say.

3. Try not to pressure your child with questions. Instead, comment on what he is doing.

4. During moments of disfluency:

  • Continue to allow your child to finish his thought/idea
  • Rephrase his thought/idea back to him using easy, relaxed speech.

5. Reinforce communication by praising your child’s attempts at communication. For example, “I like the way you told me that!”

6. Avoid commenting on “bumpy” consistency of speech disfluency.  Instead, model more fluent speech and healthy ways to communicate.  Reinforce what is going well.

Click here to download your free stuttering and fluency checklist!

ADHD in boys and girls

ADHD in Girls v. Boys

 

 

 

 

Although there are many features of ADHD that may overlap between genders, studies have shown there to be characteristics that differ among boys and girls. Neither of these characteristics are exclusive to the gender, but these are generally the characteristics seen in girls and boys with an ADHD diagnosis:

 ADHD Features in GIRLS:

  • Tend to show more symptoms of inattentiveness vs. hyperactivity
  • Are more likely to be diagnosed later in their academic career
  • Some adult women are not diagnosed until their child goes through the process and is diagnosed themselves!
  • Have a higher likelihood of being under-identified and under-treated
  • Display more symptoms of inattention, daydreaming, and memory problems
  • May be initially misdiagnosed
  • Tend to go under the radar during early school years
  • Tend to be slower learners and less motivated
  • Are at-risk for self-esteem issues, mood issues, and substance abuse
  • Adolescent-aged girls have lower self-efficacy and coping skills
  • Have a higher tendency to internalize problems
  • Are easily overwhelmed
  • Have difficulty with time management

 ADHD Features in BOYS:

  • Have a 2:1 ratio diagnosis of boys to girls
  • Are more likely to be detected and diagnosed early on in the school–age years
  • Show more symptoms of hyperactivity and behavioral problems
  • Have higher rates of impulsivity
  • Have Higher incidents of externalizing problems associated with ADHD symptoms (i.e. aggression, trouble getting along with peers)
  • Have trouble sitting still or disruptive in the classroom
ball skills

Help Your Child Develop Ball Skills

 

 

 

Pediatric physical therapists and occupational therapists often work with young children on play skills to prepare them for school and sports. Between when a baby first learns to sit on his own and when he starts preschool, many gross motor skills are developing. The ability to catch, throw, and kick a ball often reflect how well a child can balance his body in space, interact with his environment, and coordinate opposing sides of his body. As a prelude to specialized sports, ball skills are especially important for children to master. The questions parents frequently ask me are often related to the development of those ball skills.

 

When should my child be able to catch a ball?

Catching a ball takes on different qualities when it comes to development. A one-year- old child should be able to catch a ball while sitting down by enclosing the ball with arms and hands, without falling or losing his balance.

  • By age 2, a child is able to stand and hold his arms in front of his body, with palms up in a receiving position in anticipation. He should attempt to secure a ball thrown from 5ft away by bringing hands to chest.
  • By age 3, he should be able to catch a ball thrown from 5ft away with hands only, with arms outstretched, without the need to bring his hands to his chest. At four and a half, a child is able to catch a tennis ball from 5ft away using his hands only, with arms bent at 45 degrees, at least 2 out of 3 times.
  • By age 6, a child can bounce a tennis ball on the floor and catch it with 1 hand.

How should my child throw a ball at different ages?

  • At 12 months, a baby can roll a ball forward on the floor at least 3ft using his hands. He can also stand and throw a ball in any direction by extending his arm at shoulder or elbow.
  • By 18 months, a child should be able to stand and throw a ball without falling.
  • By 2 years, a child will be able to throw a tennis ball forward at least 3ft using an overhand and underhand technique. By two and a half, that distance doubles.
  • By three and a half, a child will be able to throw a tennis ball forward 10ft in the air and use appropriate technique, such as moving arms up and back using upper trunk rotation, with arms and legs moving in opposition. He can also hit a 2ft target from 5ft away with a tennis ball using underhand toss.
  • By four and a half, a child can throw a tennis ball underhandedly at least 10ft using trunk rotation and opposing arm/leg movements. He can also hit a target from 12ft away 2 out of 3 trials using an overhand toss.

When should my child be able to kick a ball?

  • At a year and a half, a child will have the balance and coordination to stand, lift his foot, and contact a ball. By 20 months, he can kick a stationary ball forward 3ft. By 2 years, he would be able to do this without the ball deviating more than 20 degrees to either side of midline, suggesting good control of his body and limbs.
  • A 3-year-old can kick a ball forward 6ft using opposing arm and leg movements. He should be able to initiate the kick by bringing his foot backwards with knee bent.
  • By 6 years, a child has the balance, coordination, and strength to kick the ball forward and up in the air at least 12ft, using proper technique.

Okay. So that’s what my child should be doing. How do I help him achieve these developmental milestones?

It is so important to start at a level that your child can achieve and then gradually increase the difficulty. Children respond well to success and praise, and they are more willing to try challenging tasks as they build up their confidence. Break down each task step by step. For example, if kicking a ball is hard or if his technique is off, have your child practice standing on one foot first or kick a balloon instead. If throwing underhandedly is tough, break down the different position of his arms and legs during each point of the motion. Achieving developmental milestones is a matter of practice, timing, cognitive maturation, and understanding the parts of each task.

Look for an upcoming blog about specialized sports for children. If you continue to have questions or concerns about your child’s coordination, development, and ball skills, come in and talk to one of our specialists!

what is phonemic awareness

What is Phonemic Awareness?

Literacy, or the ability to read and write, is paramount to a child’s success in school. Many children struggle with these skills, and this struggle may be due to difficulty with the building blocks of reading and writing, also known as phonological awareness. Phonological awareness can be thought of as one’s ability to identify sounds and letters as they relate to our spoken (and written) language. We all remember playing rhyming games in elementary school, but many people are unaware of their importance!

Children who have an understanding of phonological awareness understand that sentences are made up of words, words are made up parts (syllables), and each syllable has distinctive sounds. One great way to practice phonological awareness is through rhyming games and alliteration. Children will enjoy saying tongue twisters like, “Sally sells sea shells by the sea shore.” and identifying how many /s/ and /sh/ words they can count!

Phonemic awareness, a subset of phonological awareness, allows children to manipulate parts of language. Similar to phonological awareness, phonemic awareness is also comprised of parts including the following:
•    Segmenting: what sounds do we hear in the word “hat?” /h/, /a/, /t/
•    Blending: if you hear the sounds /t/, /o/, /p/, what do we get when we put them together?
•    Deleting: what’s “bat” without the “t?”
•    Substituting: if we change the /h/ in “house” to an /m/, what do we get?
•    Identifying: what’s the first sound in “cat?”

Phonemic awareness is separate from letter identification as it targets individual sounds; however, parents can incorporate letter names when practicing.

Phonological awareness typically begins in preschool and continues through early elementary school to prepare children for reading. These skills serve as the foundation for a child’s ability to read and write. If you suspect your child may be struggling with phonological awareness skills, a licensed speech-language pathologist can help!

Click here to read about 7 Ways to Increase Phonological Awareness.

Young girl cutting paper

Spring Crafts For Kids

The official first day of Spring has arrived and Spring breaks are in progress!  The weather may be a little chilly, but here are some springtime crafts for your family to enjoy.

Crayon Critters – ages preschool to school age

This craft is a great way to have children use their imaginations…and to use up crayon pieces!
 
Supplies

  • Wax Paper
  • Bits of crayon
  • Warm iron (under adult supervision)
  • Scissors
  • Stapler
  • Hole-Punch
  • Fishing line or yarn
  • Tacky glue (optional)
  • White paper (construction or copy)
  • Cloth (optional)
  • Black construction paper (optional)

Instructions

  • Create your pattern by drawing it on the white paper (draw it large enough to use up the entire piece of paper).  Some spring ideas:  butterfly, caterpillar, lady bug, bird.
  • Place a piece of wax paper over created pattern.
  • Sprinkle crayon shavings (sparingly!) on wax paper
  • Place another piece of wax paper on top of shavings and a blank sheet of paper or a cloth over that. Gently press down with a warm iron. The crayon will melt quickly.
  • Staple pattern to the crayon melted wax paper outside of the design area and cut out. This may be enough for the littlest crafters.
  • (Optional for older children) Create a black outline with construction paper for your critter to make it even more dramatic.  To do this, take a pencil and outline the critter on top of the black paper. Cut out holes or shapes in the black paper so the crayon design shows through.
  • Glue the black paper to the wax paper.  A little tacky glue will go a long way, so use a little at a time.
  • Punch a hole in the top of the critter and thread fishing line or yarn through to enable it to be hung in the window.

Egg Carton Wreaths – ages preschool to school age

At some point most of us will have an empty egg carton…instead of throwing it away, this is a great project to recycle it!

Supplies

  • Egg Carton (1)
  • Watercolor paints
  • Paint brushes
  • Cardboard
  • Tacky glue
  • Ribbon or yarn
  • Scissors

Instructions

  • Cut a ring (about 12″ in diameter) from a small piece of cardboard to be the base for the wreath.
  • Tear apart all the egg cups so they are individualized.
  • Make cuts in each egg cup to create petals.  (So it will have slits going all around the cup)
  • Decorate each cup using watercolors (or markers) to create all the flowers.  Feel free to add any other type of decorating technique  (glitter, feathers, pipe-cleaners, etc)
  • Use tacky glue to attach each flower to our cardboard ring.
  • Make a small hole in the cardboard base and use ribbon to hang.

Birdfeeders

Here is a great project that helps your child or teen feed the birds that have ended their hibernation and are ready or spring, just like us!
 Supplies

  • Toilet paper roll
  • Knife
  • Peanut butter (or shortening if there is a peanut allergy)
  • Bird seed
  • Paper plate
  • String or pipe-cleaners
  • Hole punch
  • Cheerios (or a cereal with a hole in the middle of each piece)

Instructions

  • Take a pipe-cleaner and bend one end bend one end (so the Cheerios don’t fall off), and thread the Cheerios on.  Make a loop at the top to hang it on the tree.
  • Use a hole-punch to make a hole at the top of your toilet paper roll.
  • Spread peanut butter or shortening on the toilet paper roll.
  • Pour birdseed onto a plate so you cannot see the bottom of the plate
  • Roll the peanut butter-covered TP roll in bird seed until it’s fully covered.

Options for hanging:

–Hang on the end of a tree branch.

–Put a string through a punched hole and hang it on a branch.

–Use the pipe-cleaner with Cheerios to hang on a branch

Bottle Feeder – for older kids

 Supplies

  • One- 1 liter bottle of soda
  • One- 2 liter bottles of soda. (bottles should have straight bottom sections, rather than curved ones)
  • 5′ of thick wire, at least 2mm gauge.
  • Sharp scissors or x-acto knife
  • Nails
  • Hammer
  • Paint (acrylic or tempera)
  • Paint brushes
  • Wooden spoons (2-3)
  • Bird seed

Instructions

  • Remove the labels and all glue.
  • Save the bottle cap from the 2 Liter bottle.
  • Cut the 1 liter bottle at roughly the halfway point between where the neck widens out and the bottom of the bottle. Keep the lower portion of the bottle.
  • Cut the 2 liter bottle at the widest part of the neck.  Keep the upper/neck portion of the bottle.
  • Cut a 1.5-2″ hole in the side of the smaller bottle, roughly 1″ up from the top of the feet,  no less than 1/2″ away from the top edge.
  • Test the bigger bottle (this is the roof) over the smaller bottle (main part of house) If the top section looks too big, trim the edges so that the top part is shorter and looks more like a roof.
  • Use the hammer and nail to add 2 holes, on opposite sides of the smaller bottle.   They should be 1/2″ away from the top edge of the bottle but not on the same side as the entry hole.
  • Next add four holes in the bottle cap not too close to the edge of the cap.
  • Paint the bottle pieces and let dry a couple hours or until no longer wet.
  • Cut two pieces of the wire (about 2′ long) and thread it through the top of the bottle cap.  Continue to threat the wire through the outside of the smaller bottle and then back up through the next hole. Repeat for the other side with a second length of wire.
  • Making sure all of the wires ends are even, overlap their ends by about 2″. Twist the ends together and hang!


World Health Organization Development Study Results: Gross Motor Milestones In the First Year

 

The line between typical and atypical development can be a hazy one. There are standards that pediatricians, physical therapists, and developmental experts use to monitor growth and deviations from the norm, which allow us to recommend interventions when appropriate.  In 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) released a whole new set of standards for evaluating and assessing the development of children from birth to 5 years.

What makes this new standard a great tool to monitor the change and growth of infants? This standard is based on data collected from healthy children, over multiple years, in six diverse geographic regions including Southeast and Southwest Asia, Europe, West Africa, North and South America. What is exciting about the new evaluation tool is that now, pediatric specialists have more than just reference curves for physical growth, but curves for motor development as well.

The six gross motor milestones WHO examined in babies were the following:

1.    Sitting without support
2.    Standing with assistance
3.    Hands-and-knees crawling
4.    Walking with assistance
5.    Standing alone
6.    Walking alone

The “windows of milestone achievement” were organized into percentile rankings which pediatricians and physical therapists can use, much like a growth chart.

Without delving too deep into statistics and calculations, the typical age range (in months) for each milestone is listed below:

1.    Sitting without support: 3.8 – 9.2 months
2.    Standing with assistance: 4.8 – 11.4 months
3.    Hands-and-knees crawling: 5.2 – 13.5 months
4.    Walking with assistance: 5.9 – 13.7 months
5.    Standing alone: 6.9 – 16.9 months
6.    Walking alone: 8.2 – 17.6 months

The average (mean) age for healthy children achieving each milestones is as follows:

1.    Sitting without support: 6 months (with 1.1 month standard deviation, SD)
2.    Standing with assistance: 7.6 months (with 1.4 month SD)
3.    Hands-and-knees crawling: 8.5 months (with 1.7 month SD)
4.    Walking with assistance: 9.2 months (with 1.5 month SD)
5.    Standing alone: 11 months (with 1.9 month SD)
6.    Walking alone: 12.1 months (with 1.8 month standard deviation)

(Click here to view this information in chart form from WHO.)

What is most interesting is that about 90% of the children studied met their milestones in a common sequence, and only 4% of the children skipped hands-and-knees crawling.  (Read here about the importance of crawling.)

As you read over these standards and timelines, remember that every baby develops differently from another. If you see your baby fall behind on any of the 6 gross motor milestones above, mention it to his pediatrician, and she will most likely recommend a physical therapist to help him along.



Reference:
WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group.  WHO Motor Development Study: Windows of achievement for six gross motor development milestones. Acta Paediatrica, 2006; Suppl 450: 86-95.