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the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2)

Understanding Physical Therapy Outcome Measurements: The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2)

Previous physical therapy blogs have explained outcome measurements used to assess gross motor development in infants and children up to age 5, including the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale, second edition and the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. When children age out of either the PDMS-2 or the AIMS, one standardized assessment option physical therapists have is the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2). The BOT-2 can be used to evaluate a wide variety of fine and gross motor skills for children, teenagers and young adults 4-21 years of age. This is a test that can also be used by occupational therapists, psychologists, adaptive physical education teachers, special education teachers and educational diagnosticians.

The BOT-2 contains a total of 8 subtests that look at both fine and gross motor functioning. When certain subtests are combined, they can give more specific information regarding the child’s Fine Manual Control, Manual Coordination, Body Coordination, or Strength and Agility. Administering all 8 subtests can allow the physical therapist to obtain a Total Motor Composite looking at the child’s overall performance with fine and gross motor functioning.

Below is a description of the subtests most commonly used by physical therapists in BOT-2 testing:

  • Bilateral Coordination: This section of the BOT-2 looks at a child’s control with tasks requiring movement ofthe Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2) both sides of the body. Tasks in this section will require the child to move his arms and legs from the same and opposite sides of the body together, in sequence, or in opposition.
  • Balance: The balance subtest evaluates the child’s moving and stationary balance. Tasks are completed with a variety of challenges to the balance systems, such as while on one foot, on a balance beam, or with eyes closed.
  • Running Speed and Agility: This section of the test looks at a child’s maximum running speed, running and changing directions, as well as stationary and dynamic hopping and jumping skills.
  • Upper-Limb Coordination: This subtest is used to assess the child’s ability to coordinate arm and hand movements and visual tracking of the task. The child is required to demonstrate skills such as catching, throwing and dribbling a tennis ball with one or both hands.
  • Strength: In the strength section of testing, the child is required to perform tasks designed to evaluate strength in the core, arms and legs. Strength is assessed in both static positions as well as with dynamic movements.

Based on the child’s presenting concerns, a physical therapist may evaluate the child using just a few or all of these subtests. The child’s performance on the BOT-2 will allow the physical therapist to identify areas of strength and areas of need in regards to the child’s gross motor functioning, and can therefore help to guide treatment. Because the BOT-2 has both age and sex-specific normative data, this test will help the physical therapist determine how the child is performing compared to peers his age. The BOT-2 can be re-administered periodically in order to monitor progress in the child’s functioning and performance with gross motor skills.

If you have concerns with your child’s performance in any of the categories listed above, click here to get scheduled with one of our pediatric physical therapists!

References:
Bruininks, Robert H., and Brett D. Bruininks. Bruininks-Oseretsky Test Motor Proficiency. 2nd ed. Minneapolis: Pearson, 2005. Print.

Infant crawling

Understanding Physical Therapy Outcome Measurements: The Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS)

Pediatric physical therapists use different methods and tools to monitor children at risk for motor delay. These measurement tools are often age-specific, reliable, valid, and easy to administer. The purpose of using standardized outcome measurements is that both typical and atypical development can be monitored across the lifespan.

Infant crawlingWhen a baby attends his first physical therapy session, he will most likely be evaluated using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale.  This scale assesses the motor development of babies birth to eighteen months of age. It breaks down the components of infant movements, up until independent walking is achieved.  Over the course of a baby’s first year of physical therapy, he will most likely be evaluated multiple times using this scale. Based on the child’s ability to perform gross motor milestones in 4 different positions: supine (lying on back), prone (lying on tummy), sitting, and standing, physical therapists and occupational therapists can determine his motor performance compared to his peers. Much like a height and weight scale used by pediatricians, the AIMS allows physical therapists to record infants’ developmental maturity as a percentile score, and to monitor his motor development over time. This way all health professionals involved in your baby’s care can track his growth over time, both compared to his peers, and compared to his previous performances.

There are a couple other standardized assessment tools we use to monitor gross motor development. Keep in mind that one-time screenings are not enough to rule out developmental delay. When using outcome measures to determine motor delay, physical therapists need to perform multiple assessments over time, using a variety of tests.  Once a baby outgrows the AIMS, we have other standardized tools ready to go for the toddler stage. Look for information on the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale in an upcoming blog.

 

Questions about physical therapy screenings for your baby? Please give us a call!