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Reading Skills: A Grade by Grade Guide (K-3)

Reading Skills: A Grade by Grade Guide (K-3)

Believe it or not, the new school year is almost here! Are you wondering what reading skills your child should have by the end of his respective grade? Refer to the grade-by-grade guide below, based on the Illinois’ common core standards.

A Grade by Grade Guide to Reading Skills:

In Kindergarten Your Child Should Be Able To:

retell familiar stories ask and answer questions about stories (with support) identify parts of a book (covers and title page) demonstrate understanding of features of print
recognize and name all upper and lower case letters recognize and produce rhyming words demonstrate letter-sound correspondence segment syllables
isolate and pronounce sounds in words read common high frequency words read emergent reader texts follow words left to right, top to bottom, page to page

In First Grade Your Child Should Be Able To:

describe characters, settings, and main events in stories identify main topic and recall key details decode two syllable words ask and answer questions about text
explain major differences between books that tell stories and those that give information identify similarities and differences between two texts on the same topic recognize features of a sentence (capitalization, first word, ending punctuation) decode regularly spelled one-syllable words and irregularly spelled words

In Second Grade Your Child Should Be Able To:

describe how characters respond to major events describe overall structure of a story compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story decode regularly spelled two-syllable words with long vowels
decode words with common prefixes and suffixes identify main idea of multiparagraph text read and comprehend informational texts determine meaning of words and phrases in an age-appropriate reading

 

In Third Grade Your Child Should Be Able To:

retell stories, fables, folktales, and myths explain how details support the main idea distinguish literal from nonliteral language decode multisyllabic words
compare and contrast books in a series compare and contrast two texts on the same topic read and comprehend informational texts of different subject areas distinguish own point of view

All standards have been reported from the Illinois State Board of Education. Additional standards are expected that have not been stated above. If you are concerned with your child’s reading skills, seek the guidance of a neuropsychologist who can help refer you to the appropriate support system.

NSPT offers services in BucktownEvanstonHighland ParkLincolnwoodGlenview and Des Plaines. If you have questions or concerns about your child, we would love to help! Give us a call at (877) 486-4140 and speak to one of our Family Child Advocates today!

Helping Your Child Produce the /G/ Sound at Home

It is common for young children to make certain sound substitutions as their speech and language skills are developing. One example is substituting /t/ for /k/ (e.g. saying “tar” instead of “car”); another is substituting /d/ for /g/ (e.g. saying “do” instead of “go”). By the age of 3, however, most typically-developing children are able to accurately produce the /k/ and /g/ consonant sounds.

If your child is having difficulty with these sounds, first try some tricks to work on the /k/ sound. Once your child has mastered the /k/ sound, she is ready to work on /g/. /k/ and /g/ are considered “cognates,” meaning that they are produced in the same place in the mouth, with the back of the tongue elevating towards the roof of the mouth. However, /k/ is voiceless, meaning it is produced without using your voice, and /g/ is voiced, meaning it is produced with your voice on. Read more

Speech and Language: What is the Difference?

At a time when families are seeking treatment for their children, they may hear terms like “speech” or “language” and wonder, what’s mother and daughter talkingthe difference?  Many children will struggle with both speech and language aspects of communication, and it is important that families understand the distinction.

Speech:

“Speech” can be thought of as verbal communication. It is the set of sounds that we make (using our voice and our articulators) that comprise syllables, words, and sentences. Speech alone carries no meaning; it is merely sound.

There are three main components of speech:

  • Articulation (how we make each sound)
  • Voicing (using our “vocal cords”)
  • Fluency (intonation and rhythm)

Speech sounds emerge at different ages, and most children have all sounds mastered by age 9. Common speech errors occur when a child omits sounds (ex. “ba” for “ball”)  or substitutes one sound for another (ex. “wabbit” for “rabbit”). If you have questions about typical speech milestones, please see this blog

Language:

“Language” encompasses how we use speech to formulate sentences in order to communicate.  Language also consists of three parts:

Children may have difficulty with one or more components of language, as indicated by children choosing the wrong word, having a difficult time understanding ideas and concepts, and struggling with appropriate grammar when speaking or writing. Many older children may have difficulty decoding social language such as irony, sarcasm, or hidden meanings, which can negatively affect their ability to make and maintain friendships.

Communication is comprised of speech and language. Children struggling in one or more areas of communication may have difficulty being understood by both familiar and unfamiliar communication partners, making it more difficult for their wants and needs to be met. These difficulties may also create problems in school, both academically and socially.

Intervention can help children with difficulties in these areas. Speech-language pathologists can conduct evaluations and create plans that help to reduce both short-term and long-term effects of speech and/or language disorders. At NSPT, we want to see your children blossom, so please contact us if you have any questions about your child’s speech and/or language development!




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A Checklist for Language Based Reading Difficulties

Learning to read is such a monumental milestone for children in early elementary school, but it can also be a source of stress for concerned parents or for children who don’t seem to “pick it up” as easily as others. Since reading is a fundamental skill which only increases in importance as students move on to later grades in school, early identification of at-risk readers is key to ensuring academic success for all children.

Listed below is a checklist which can be used to identify children (in kindergarten – first grade) who may benefit from further evaluation by a speech-language pathologist:

Speech sound awareness:Child with reading difficulties

  • Does not understand or enjoy rhymes (may have difficulty clapping hands/tapping feet in rhythm to songs or rhymes)
  • Does not recognize words with the same beginning sound
  • Has difficulty counting syllables in spoken words
  • Difficulty learning sound-letter correspondences ( the letter ‘b’ says ‘buh’)

Written language awareness:

  • Does not orient book properly while looking through books
  • Cannot identify words and letters in picture books

Letter name knowledge:

  • Cannot recite the alphabet
  • Cannot identify printed letters as they are named or name letters when asked.

Word retrieval:

  • Has difficulty finding a specific word in conversation, uses non-specific words (thing, stuff) or substitutes a related term
  • Poor memory for classmates names
  • Halting speech- pauses and filler words used (“um” or “you know”)

Speech production/perception:

  • Difficulty saying common words with difficult sound patterns (i.e. cinnamon, specific, library)
  • Mishears and then mispronounces words/names
  • Frequent slips of the tongue (says “brue blush” for “blue brush”)

Comprehension:

  • Only responds to part of a multi-step direction or instruction or requests multiple repetitions for instructions
  • Difficulty understanding spatial terms (in front, behind etc.)
  • Difficulty understanding stories

Expressive language:

  • Uses short sentences with a small vocabulary, little variety
  • Difficulty giving directions or explanations, little detail provided
  • Disorganized story-telling or event recall
  • Grammar errors (“he goed to the store”)

Literacy motivation:

  • Does not enjoy classroom story-time (wanders, does not pay attention when teacher reads stories)
  • Shows little interest in literacy activities (looking at books, writing)

If your child or a child you work with can be described by many of the items on this checklist, further evaluation of their language skills is warranted to ensure appropriate intervention is provided and continued literacy learning is encouraged. There are many professionals (teachers, reading specialists, and speech-language pathologists) who are trained to assist children in acquiring early literacy skills or supporting children who exhibit difficulty in this area. However, areas of expertise vary and depending on the needs of your child, the appropriate professional to help can be identified.

This checklist is modified from H. Catts’s 2002 publication in Languge, speech, and Hearing Services in Schools as presented in Rhea Paul’s Language Disorders from Infancy through Adolescence.

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