What is Down Syndrome?

Down Syndrome is thought to be the most common genetic etiology of mental retardation. This condition has been found to occur in down syndromeapproximately 1 in 800 live births. The genetics of the condition are such that the individual has an extra copy of chromosome 21.

Physical Features Associated with Down Syndrome:

  • Decreased muscle tone seen at birth
  • Excess skin at the nape of the neck
  • Flattened nose
  • Small ears
  • Small mouth
  • White short hands with short fingers

Cognitive Features Associated with Down Syndrome:

  • Moderate mental retardation
  • Weakness with grammatical aspects of language
  • Relative strength with spatial reasoning tasks
  • Verbal short term memory is more impaired than visual memory
  • Weakness with daily living skills (self-care skills)
  • Relative strength with social skills

Interventions for Children with Down Syndrome:

  • Speech and language therapy with possible addition of sign language
  • Visually-based interventions for teaching, reading and vocabulary
  • Occupational therapy for sensory integration and motor development